• Human factors during Front End Engineering Design (FEED)


    2007 - Gas, power

    The client was carrying out Front End Engineering Design (FEED) for a decarbonised fuel power station. The plant would reform natural gas to create hydrogen and carbon dioxide, which would be reinjected into depleted gas wells to achieve sequestration. Being a radically new concept, the client wanted to ensure all good practices were followed throughout the design, including human factors.

    Andy was given the role of identifying key aspects of the plants future operation. He identified the critical tasks, analysed them and specified requirements for plant design, control systems, user interfaces, procedures and training. The project contributed to the client's development of an internal human engineering standard and was nominated for a corporate award for safety innovation.

  • Human factors engineering at project 60% design review

    2007 - Gas onshore processing

    Having completed 60% of the design for a major new plant, a review of the three dimensional model of the plant was carried out. This was attended by representatives of the design contractor, construction contractor, client and future operator.

    Andy's role was to provide specialist human factors engineering input, advising on potential conflicts between the proposed plant layout and human factors good practice; and suggesting feasible solutions. Shell's Design and Engineering Practice (DEP) on human factors engineering was used throughout this project, and in fact this was one of the first major projects where this had been the case.

  • Human factors engineering for a major modification to an onshore gas terminal

    2014 - Gas

    Following on from his input into the Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) stage of the project, Andy was commissioned to provide human factors input during detailed design of the modification.  This involved management of the human factors integration plan, as well providing consultancy support and performing audits and reviews.

  • Human factors engineering support during detailed design of a new onshore has facility

    2008 - Gas onshore processing

    Andy was appointed as Human Factors Engineering (HFE) lead on a major engineering project for the gas sector.  His role was to advise discipline engineers on requirements, review design and respond to questions.  He chaired the Project Ergonomics Team, maintained a detailed log of issues followed through to close, and documented key findings in the HFE design report.  Andy's involvement ensured HFE was an integral part of the project and that the final design complied with current standards and good practice.

  • Human factors engineering support during Front End Engineering Design (FEED) of a major upgrade to plant

    2010 - Gas

    The site had been in operation for many years and studies had shown that replacement of a number of major items of equipment would be required if it was going to achieve future safety, environmental and commercial requirements.  Andy was engaged to act as the human factors engineer within the design team.  His  role included identifying the aspects of the project that would have the greatest potential impact on human factors, to assist the design team in addressing the requirements and to review the design to ensure human factors requirements had been achieved.  A key element of the project was the adoption of a new control system, which included a new control room. Although this work was carried out at a very early stage in the project, Andy was able to influence the design in a number of areas, including the location of the control room and its basic layout; and he developed a detailed list of actions to be completed as the project progressed.

  • Human factors for a control room at a new facility

    2007 - Liquefied natural gas (LNG)

    The client was building a new facility, which was to include a new control room. Andy was asked to comment on the engineering contractor's design. He identified a number of deficiencies and was able to advise on how current good practices could be incorporated. He was subsequently asked to provide more detailed advice on the operator interfaces in the control room.

    Andy conducted a task analysis workshop with the future operators of the plant. From this he was able to specify requirements for overview and detailed graphics; including task and scenario based displays where appropriate. As well as using the analyses carried out by Andy in the design of their user interfaces, the operators continued to carry out additional task analyses using the same method as they found it a very valuable exercise in reviewing the plant design and considering how they were to operate the plant in the future.

  • Human factors for a new facility

    2006 - Gas terminal

    Andy was seconded to the pre-operations team during the final design and construction phases of a new gas terminal. Andy's role was to facilitate task analysis and risk assessment, and to use the results to specify plant and interface design, procedural and competence requirements. This was a significant contribution to the preparation of the COMAH safety report and development of safe systems of work. Andy has provided ongoing support to the project, and this has demonstrated that human factors best practices can be incorporated into a project with minimal extra time and cost over 'traditional' approaches.

  • Human factors in a HAZOP


    2008 - Gas, offshore

    The client was designing a new gas production platform. Andy was asked to attend a Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) review to ensure human factors was given appropriate attention. His input ensured that human errors and risk controls were considered from a human factors perspective rather than purely engineering custom and practice.

  • Human factors review of bow ties supporting an offshore safety case

    2014 - Offshore gas

    The client had completed a number of bow tie analyses in support of their safety case.  Andy was asked to review these to identify any significant human factors issues.  He reviewed the barriers in order to determine which would be considered safety critical tasks or safety critical activities; and made recommendations about how the adequacy of these barriers could be ensured.

  • Human Hazop for a new plant

    2007 - Liquefied natural gas (LNG)

    The client was in the process of building a liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage facility. As part of its development of a safety report under the COMAH regulations, a human Hazop was carried out. This followed the principles of Hazop, applied to key human activities using a modified set of key words. Because of his knowledge of human factors and LNG facilities he was asked to participate in the Hazop.

  • Improving operating procedures at an onshore gas terminal

    2009 - Gas terminal

    Andy was engaged by the client to provide a range of human factors support.  A significant part of this was the development of improved operating procedures.  This involved developing a comprehensive task list, ranked using a systematic method of assigning criticality.  Detailed procedures, developed using task analysis were produced for the 10% of tasks considered to be most critical.  The procedures were considered to be far superior to the previous procedures because they were shorter, clearer and more accurate.

  • Incorporating human factors into invitations to tender for design services

    2011 - Gas

    The client was planning major modifications to an existing facility. They recognised the importance of incorporating human factors into the design, which would be performed by a contractor. They asked Andy to provide the text to be included in the Invitation to Tender (ITT) being sent to design contractors and to advise on the issues to be considered when evaluating bids. Andy specified the general approach required to manage human factors during the project as well as identifying the likely human factors 'hot spots' that would require specific management plans and be included in project reviews and audit.

  • Loss of containment assessment


    2005 - Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

    The client was the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contractor for a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import, storage and regassification facility being built in Spain. Andy's role was to review the engineering design in order to identify credible loss of containment events and to evaluate the potential consequences. This involved him working with the design team, examining piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and reviewing plant and equipment specifications. His analysis was used to determine the accidental loads that the plant had to be able to withstand so that escalation did not occur. It needed to be presented in a way that the designers could understand and their client would accept.

  • Overseeing human factors in the design of a new control room

    2008 - Gas onshore processing

    Andy was engaged by a design contractor to oversee work carried out by a vendor of a control room (including DCS and other interfaces) and auxiliary buildings.  His role was to ensure human factors had been given adequate consideration.  Andy led model reviews of the buildings, facilitated usability tests and carried out site inspections.  His intervention led to improved design of operator interfaces; and improved layout and labelling of equipment cabinets.  The ultimate client for the project was very appreciative of the work carried out by Andy and took a more hands-off approach having been reassured that key issues had been identified and addressed.  This certainly reduced the workload on the design contractor and their vendor.

  • Quantified risk assessment at the design stage of a LNG storage and export facility

    2003 - Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

    The client was the design contractor for a large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facility to be located in Northern Norway. The project was a full Quantified Risk Assessment of the design to identify any points of weakness and demonstrate that personal and societal risks were acceptable to the Operator and Norwegian regulator. Andy's role in the project was to calculate the predicted frequency of loss of containment, fire and explosion events. For pipework and fittings, a formula derived from the HSE offshore hydrocarbon release data, modified for LNG use, was used to determine leak probabilities. For other items (e.g. ship loading arms, tank foundation heaters) Andy used industry databases and developed event and fault trees for the analysis. The results from the QRA were used to modify the design in a number of key areas to reduce risks.

    The client was planning to change from a 8-hour to 12-hour shift pattern. The main driver for this was that they were having problems arranging cover for holidays, sickness etc. This had resulted in frequent working of double shifts (i.e. 16 hours). Andy made extensive use of fatigue research documented in HSE Contract Research Report 254/1999, and the working time directive and UK regulations. Communication was key element in this project and research about shift handover described in HSE offshore report OTO 96003 was used.
  • Reassessment of staffing arrangements following an organisational change

    2014 - Gas

    Following an assessment aimed at predicting the impact of a planned change, Andy returned to site to re-assess staffing arrangements using the Staffing Assessment method.

  • Review of an organisational change

    2007 - Gas terminal

    The client was planning a significant organisational change. Referring to the HSE's staffing assessment methodology, but tailoring it to the client's specific needs, Andy considered the plans and employees' views. From this he was able to identify that there was nothing fundamentally wrong with the objectives, but that some of the arrangements for implementing the change needed to be reviewed.

  • Review of control room arrangements

    2006 - Gas, offshore

    Andy was asked to return to the platform approximately one year after his initial review, to evaluate subsequent changes. He found that a number of his previous recommendations had been implemented, and had been received favourably by both operators and management. Andy to identified some further opportunities to improve, challenging some custom and practice that could potentially introduce risk. He was able to make a number of recommendations to further improve the control room that would ultimately contribute to safely reducing manning levels.

  • Review of control room arrangements


    2005 - Gas, offshore

    The original arrangement on the offshore complex included two control rooms. The client had recently changed this to have the two operators in the same room. Andy was required to evaluate the impact of this change and to determine whether it would be possible for one operator to operate the whole complex. This involved a visit offshore and a two day workshop with personnel. The HSE staffing methodology was used as the basis for the evaluation. Andy's conclusions were that the completed changes were largely satisfactory, but that further changes to alarm systems and layout of the control room were required before any down manning could be considered to ensure the lone operator was not overly distracted be events.

  • Review of human factors following detailed design

    2007 - Gas, offshore

    Three offshore gas platforms had been designed and were in the early stages of construction. Previously, during Front End Engineering Design (FEED) a preliminary human factors engineering analysis had been carried out using Shell's Design and Engineering Practices (DEP).

    Andy was asked to carry out a human factors review at the end of detailed design. This involved a three day workshop attended by representatives of the design contractors and the future operating company during which the key systems and critical tasks were identified and analysed. Andy's report confirmed adherence to the DEP and other good practice; and recommended a number of actions to improve the design.