• Assessing the design of equipment layout and controls

    2009 - Gas onshore processing

    Andy was required to visit newly constructed buildings housing electrical and control equipment.  His brief was to ensure the arrangements were appropriate to minimise risk of human error.  Andy identified that a number of cabinets were not positioned in a logical order, and that some labelling was confusing and ambiguous.  He was able to make practical and cost effective recommendations that were accepted by the engineering team as worthwhile and achievable.

  • Availability, reliability and maintainability (ARM) of a gas storage facility

    2006 - Gas Storage

    The client was completing the definition phase for a project to develop a gas storage facility using salt caverns. An ARM study was required to demonstrate the proposed plant arrangements would be suitable for the planned operating and commercial activity. Andy led the project with other consultants carrying out the modelling and analysis. He was required to communicate closely with the client to ensure the data used was appropriate and the results were appropriate to their needs. Andy was able to use his knowledge of the gas industry to interpret the modelling results and developing practical recommendations for achieving a reliable plant. He was also able to comment on human and managerial factors that would ultimately affect reliability once the plant was operational.

  • Design human factors and ergonomics review

    2010 - Oil

    Andy was engaged by a company carrying out safety reviews for a new oil facility. His role was to attend the project offices in the middle east in order to carry out a human factors and ergonomics review. He ran a three day workshop, attended by representatives of the design contractors, suppliers of control equipment and the client. His review covered the control room, site layout, working conditions and potential for human error resulting in process safety incidents. From this he was able to identify a number of actions, prioritised according to the stages of the project where they could be implemented. His report was well received, with participants at the workshop being impressed with what could be learnt from a human factors review that had not been uncovered during the numerous engineering safety studies (e.g. HAZID, HAZOP).

  • Developing a human factors integration plan for designing a new onshore and offshore facility

    2010 - Gas storage

    Following his involvement in a similar, but much smaller project Andy was commissioned to act as human factors expert for a large offshore gas storage facility with onshore processing. The main deliverable during early front end engineering was a human factors integration plan that identified the activities that needed to be performed in order to integrate human factors into the project design and operations phases, with specific activities incorporated into the overall Project Plan. Following discussions with all the major stakeholders it was agreed that human factors would be a line responsibility within the Engineering disciplines (similar to other safety aspects) so that effective integration into the design is ensured. Each discipline Lead would be accountable for addressing human factors within their area of responsibility.  Given the safety implications, the project’s safety function would be responsible for the overall monitoring of human factors implementation within the project. However, the specialist nature of some elements meant support and assistance would be required from a human factors specialist on a consultative basis. The plan itself was to be used to record significant human factors landmarks and references in its support of the required safety case (offshore) and safety report (onshore COMAH)

  • Developing a human factors integration plan for designing a new onshore facility

    2009 - Gas storage

    Andy was commissioned as the human factors expert during front end engineering for a new gas storage facility. His task was to ensure human factors was given sufficient consideration during the early stages of design, to develop plans for implementation during detailed design and to support the pre-construction safety report required under the COMAH regulations. He did this by developing a human factors integration plan that was consistent with industry good practice and the overall project. It was accepted by the client, regulator and engineering team as a useful method of making sure human factors received sufficient attention throughout the project.

  • Development of a company standard for control room design

    2011 - Chemical

    The client was expecting to be upgrade various aspects of a number of control rooms over the coming months and years. They realised that in the past human factors had not received much attention when designing or planning changes to control rooms, and that this had sometimes caused them problems.  Also, they recognised there were some regulatory requirements. Andy was asked to develop an in-house standard that could be used when designing and reviewing control rooms. It referred to published standards, guides and good practices; but also provided practical guidance and insights gained for Andy's experiences with control room. The result was a relatively simple document that summarised all the key human factors and ergonomics issues associated with control rooms along with advice for assessing and managing design and change processes.

  • Development of an emergency preparedness report for a LNG storage and export facility

    2003 - Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

    The client was the design contractor for a large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facility to be located in Northern Norway. As part of the contract the client was required to provide an 'emergency preparedness report' that defined equipment and procedural requirements, that was to be used by the Operator to develop emergency systems for the facility. Andy developed the emergency preparedness report for the client. This involved reviewing the Operator's specifications and the plant design and risk assessments. Andy advised the client on the minimum requirements, and practical considerations given likely manning levels and environmental conditions (note the facility was to be operated in northern Norway). He attended meetings with the client and Operator to confirm the necessary arrangements.

    The client was planning to change from a 8-hour to 12-hour shift pattern. The main driver for this was that they were having problems arranging cover for holidays, sickness etc. This had resulted in frequent working of double shifts (i.e. 16 hours). Andy made extensive use of fatigue research documented in HSE Contract Research Report 254/1999, and the working time directive and UK regulations. Communication was key element in this project and research about shift handover described in HSE offshore report OTO 96003 was used.
  • Development of the Design Accidental Load specification for a LNG storage and export facility

    2004 - Liquefied Natural Gas

    The client was the design contractor for a large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facility to be located in Northern Norway. Following on from the Quantified Risk Assessment of the plant, which Andy was involved in, this project involved assessing the likely consequences of fire and explosion events that may occur. It was necessary to be able to demonstrate that the plant design would mean that it would withstand any of these events that had a frequency above a specified threshold. These were known as the 'Design Accident Loads.' The analysis was used to confirm that appropriate design standards had been used, and that the provision of passive and active fire protection, and emergency shutdown systems were adequate. Andy developed the method for carrying out this analysis, and wrote the report.

  • Human factors during Front End Engineering Design (FEED)


    2007 - Gas, power

    The client was carrying out Front End Engineering Design (FEED) for a decarbonised fuel power station. The plant would reform natural gas to create hydrogen and carbon dioxide, which would be reinjected into depleted gas wells to achieve sequestration. Being a radically new concept, the client wanted to ensure all good practices were followed throughout the design, including human factors.

    Andy was given the role of identifying key aspects of the plants future operation. He identified the critical tasks, analysed them and specified requirements for plant design, control systems, user interfaces, procedures and training. The project contributed to the client's development of an internal human engineering standard and was nominated for a corporate award for safety innovation.

  • Human factors engineering at project 60% design review

    2007 - Gas onshore processing

    Having completed 60% of the design for a major new plant, a review of the three dimensional model of the plant was carried out. This was attended by representatives of the design contractor, construction contractor, client and future operator.

    Andy's role was to provide specialist human factors engineering input, advising on potential conflicts between the proposed plant layout and human factors good practice; and suggesting feasible solutions. Shell's Design and Engineering Practice (DEP) on human factors engineering was used throughout this project, and in fact this was one of the first major projects where this had been the case.

  • Human factors engineering during Front End Engineering Design (FEED) of an offshore module.

    2012 - Offshore Oil

    Andy was tasked with leading Human Factors Engineering (HFE) studies including critical task identification, task analysis and valve criticality analysis for a new offshore module. The project was relatively early in its design lifecycle and the principles of HFE were very new to the company.  This meant that Andy's role went beyond simple facilitation because he had to explain objectives and methods to participants in some detail.  However, the studies were very effective at identifying potential human factors issues that had to be considered during detailed design.  One of the main successes of this project was that it provided a constructive forum for engineers, operations and maintenance technicians, and personnel from the design contractor to come together to share knowledge and experience.  l

  • Human factors engineering for a major modification to an onshore gas terminal

    2014 - Gas

    Following on from his input into the Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) stage of the project, Andy was commissioned to provide human factors input during detailed design of the modification.  This involved management of the human factors integration plan, as well providing consultancy support and performing audits and reviews.

  • Human factors engineering support during detailed design of a new onshore has facility

    2008 - Gas onshore processing

    Andy was appointed as Human Factors Engineering (HFE) lead on a major engineering project for the gas sector.  His role was to advise discipline engineers on requirements, review design and respond to questions.  He chaired the Project Ergonomics Team, maintained a detailed log of issues followed through to close, and documented key findings in the HFE design report.  Andy's involvement ensured HFE was an integral part of the project and that the final design complied with current standards and good practice.

  • Human factors engineering support during Front End Engineering Design (FEED) of a major upgrade to plant

    2010 - Gas

    The site had been in operation for many years and studies had shown that replacement of a number of major items of equipment would be required if it was going to achieve future safety, environmental and commercial requirements.  Andy was engaged to act as the human factors engineer within the design team.  His  role included identifying the aspects of the project that would have the greatest potential impact on human factors, to assist the design team in addressing the requirements and to review the design to ensure human factors requirements had been achieved.  A key element of the project was the adoption of a new control system, which included a new control room. Although this work was carried out at a very early stage in the project, Andy was able to influence the design in a number of areas, including the location of the control room and its basic layout; and he developed a detailed list of actions to be completed as the project progressed.

  • Incorporating human factors into invitations to tender for design services

    2011 - Gas

    The client was planning major modifications to an existing facility. They recognised the importance of incorporating human factors into the design, which would be performed by a contractor. They asked Andy to provide the text to be included in the Invitation to Tender (ITT) being sent to design contractors and to advise on the issues to be considered when evaluating bids. Andy specified the general approach required to manage human factors during the project as well as identifying the likely human factors 'hot spots' that would require specific management plans and be included in project reviews and audit.

  • Loss of containment assessment


    2005 - Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

    The client was the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contractor for a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import, storage and regassification facility being built in Spain. Andy's role was to review the engineering design in order to identify credible loss of containment events and to evaluate the potential consequences. This involved him working with the design team, examining piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and reviewing plant and equipment specifications. His analysis was used to determine the accidental loads that the plant had to be able to withstand so that escalation did not occur. It needed to be presented in a way that the designers could understand and their client would accept.

  • Overseeing human factors in the design of a new control room

    2008 - Gas onshore processing

    Andy was engaged by a design contractor to oversee work carried out by a vendor of a control room (including DCS and other interfaces) and auxiliary buildings.  His role was to ensure human factors had been given adequate consideration.  Andy led model reviews of the buildings, facilitated usability tests and carried out site inspections.  His intervention led to improved design of operator interfaces; and improved layout and labelling of equipment cabinets.  The ultimate client for the project was very appreciative of the work carried out by Andy and took a more hands-off approach having been reassured that key issues had been identified and addressed.  This certainly reduced the workload on the design contractor and their vendor.

  • Quantified risk assessment at the design stage of a LNG storage and export facility

    2003 - Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

    The client was the design contractor for a large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facility to be located in Northern Norway. The project was a full Quantified Risk Assessment of the design to identify any points of weakness and demonstrate that personal and societal risks were acceptable to the Operator and Norwegian regulator. Andy's role in the project was to calculate the predicted frequency of loss of containment, fire and explosion events. For pipework and fittings, a formula derived from the HSE offshore hydrocarbon release data, modified for LNG use, was used to determine leak probabilities. For other items (e.g. ship loading arms, tank foundation heaters) Andy used industry databases and developed event and fault trees for the analysis. The results from the QRA were used to modify the design in a number of key areas to reduce risks.

    The client was planning to change from a 8-hour to 12-hour shift pattern. The main driver for this was that they were having problems arranging cover for holidays, sickness etc. This had resulted in frequent working of double shifts (i.e. 16 hours). Andy made extensive use of fatigue research documented in HSE Contract Research Report 254/1999, and the working time directive and UK regulations. Communication was key element in this project and research about shift handover described in HSE offshore report OTO 96003 was used.
  • Review of human factors following detailed design

    2007 - Gas, offshore

    Three offshore gas platforms had been designed and were in the early stages of construction. Previously, during Front End Engineering Design (FEED) a preliminary human factors engineering analysis had been carried out using Shell's Design and Engineering Practices (DEP).

    Andy was asked to carry out a human factors review at the end of detailed design. This involved a three day workshop attended by representatives of the design contractors and the future operating company during which the key systems and critical tasks were identified and analysed. Andy's report confirmed adherence to the DEP and other good practice; and recommended a number of actions to improve the design.

  • Supporting the design of a control room upgrade

    2011 - Chemical manufacture

    An existing control room was requiring a complete upgrade.  The available space was limited and the client had a number of plans for changes they wanted to incorporate.  Andy worked with the operating team and control/instrument department to define the requirements and constraints for the control room; and identified relevant aspects of standards and guidance that needed to be applied.  He produced sketches that were used as the basis for the detailed design and provided advice on subjects from room and equipment layout, furniture selection and colour schemes.